Jane Weese, Author at JASE Medical

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

In part 1 we reviewed how antibiotics work, part 2 what biofilms are and their role in antibiotic resistance. In part 3 we will review:

  • When antibiotics are needed and when they aren’t appropriate
  • Distinguish between an allergic reaction to an antibiotic and the symptoms the infection is treating

When antibiotics are needed and when they aren’t appropriate

Antibiotic stewardship is one of the most pressing health issues of our time. As pathogens mutate and evade antibiotic therapy, we are forced to use more potent antibiotics. The use of antibiotics when not necessary is leading to devastating consequences. Antibiotic resistance, AKA antimicrobial resistance happens when germs like bacteria or fungi no longer respond to the drugs designed to kill them. According to the CDC: “About 47 million antibiotic courses are prescribed for infections that don’t need antibiotics, like colds and the flu, in U.S. doctors’ offices and emergency departments each year. That’s about 28% of all antibiotics prescribed in these settings.”

In the U.S., more than 2.8 million antimicrobial-resistant infections occur each year. A list of the antimicrobial resistant infections are listed on the CDC website. Some are familiar to the general population such as MRSA- Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and VRE- Vancomycin resistant Enterococci. Some not so familiar-Drug resistant Candida and Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter for example. A full list of CDCs watchlist can be found here.

Antibiotics are indicated when:

A bacteria or fungal infection has taken over the body, either systemically (in the body) or topically-skin and tissues. Entry points can be a break in the skin, respiratory inhalation, eyes. Ears, mouth, urogenital route, or ingestion. They are not needed in all cases, sometimes our body can fight off the infection. If you own a Jase case check with your care provider when in question. They are not appropriate for viral illnesses such as colds, flu, covid, etc. Sometimes a viral infection will lower the body’s immune defenses allowing an opportunistic bacterial or fungal infection to take over as in the case of a viral pneumonia to bacterial pneumonia. At that point an antibiotic may be needed.

Distinguish between an allergic reaction to an antibiotic and the symptoms the infection is treating

Penicillin, the most commonly reported antibiotic allergy is less common than believed to be.

This is a great you tube video on penicillin allergies

According to the CDC: Although 10% of the population in the U.S. reports a penicillin allergy, less than 1% of the population is truly penicillin allergic.

The difference between a side effect and allergy

Side effects to antibiotics

  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Mild rash
  • Photosensitivity
  • Vaginal yeast infection
  • Thrush

Allergic reaction to antibiotics- Seek medical care immediately

  • Severe rash/hives
  • Peeling skin
  • Anaphylactic reactions such as:
  • Respiratory distress/wheezing
  • Throat closing/tightness

Lifesaving Medications

Everyone should be empowered to care for themselves and their loved ones during the unexpected.

Recent Posts

Keeping you informed and safe.

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

In part 1 we reviewed how antibiotics work, part 2 what biofilms are and their role in antibiotic resistance. In part 3 we will review: When antibiotics are needed and when they aren’t appropriate Distinguish between an allergic reaction to an antibiotic and the...

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

In part 1 the history of antibiotics and how they work was reviewed. This week we will look at The role of biofilms in bacteria and why these present a challenge to our modern-day arsenal of antibiotics Antibiotic resistance challenges The role of biofilms in bacteria...

How do Antibiotics Work?

How do Antibiotics Work?

Part 1A brief history of antibiotics- or what do bread mold, arsenic, and soil all have in common? Throughout history populations used plants, soils and foods to treat infections. Many of our modern-day antibiotics originated from these. Only recently- the past 100...

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

In part 1 the history of antibiotics and how they work was reviewed. This week we will look at

  • The role of biofilms in bacteria and why these present a challenge to our modern-day arsenal of antibiotics
  • Antibiotic resistance challenges

The role of biofilms in bacteria and why these present a challenge to our modern-day arsenal of antibiotics

What are biofilms?

It wasn’t until the 1970s that biofilms were found to play a role in bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Bacterial biofilms are clusters of bacteria that are attached to a surface and/or to each other and embedded in a self-produced matrix of fibrin like proteins or polysaccharides.

The matrix attaches to a surface and manufactures a slimy substance that offers protection that live within the biofilm. This substance is called the Extracellular Matrix (ECM)

The ECM matrix includes proteins, polysaccharides, glycolipids, glycoproteins, and DNA. There can be more than one bacterium or microbe in the matrix which can transfer genetic material between them. This promotes adaptation of the microbes.

For instance, Staphylococcus aureus can form biofilm in four different ways- from polysaccharides to protein/DNA to fibrin to amyloid biofilms. The biofilm protects the bacterium from penetration of any invasive substances that would kill it. This can make the bacteria highly resistant to antibiotics where it can hide within this matrix and can re emerge after antibiotic therapy to reinfect the host.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) revealed that among all microbial and chronic infections, 65% and 80%, respectively, are associated with biofilm formation. Of note is that biofilms can form on living and nonliving surfaces such as indwelling catheters, implanted medical devices, and protheses.

Common bacteria associated with Biofilm

Staphylococcus aureus

The most common infection associated with implants and medical devices. These devices are very susceptible to biofilm infection. Removal of the implant or device can help bring the infection under control in some instances, however some bacteria are usually dislodged upon removal and take up residence in other parts of the body.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

According to PubMed  “Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen causing devastating acute and chronic infections in individuals with compromised immune systems. Its highly notorious persistence in clinical settings is attributed to its ability to form antibiotic-resistant biofilms.” It is found in both indwelling medical devices, catheters, ventilators and in humans.

P aeruginosa is also a major cause of hospital acquired infections, ranging from ventilator associated pneumonia to cystic fibrosis patients succumbing to this infection and diabetics with non-healing ulcers.

Escherichia coli

A major cause of urinary tract infections and can be difficult to eradicate.

Biofilm-associated diseases of different body systems and their affected organs.

Some of the more common biofilm associated diseases include:

  • Otitis media- ear infection
  • Cardiac valve-Infective endocarditis
  • Arteries- Atherosclerosis
  • Salivary glands- Salivary duct stones
  • Gastrointestinal tract- Inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer
  • Skin and underlying tissue- Wound infections
  • Vagina- Bacterial vaginosis
  • Uterus and fallopian tubes- Chronic endometritis
  • Mamary glands- Mastitis
  • Nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses- Chronic rhinosinusitis
  • Throat, tonsils, adenoids, larynx and vocal cords- Pharyngitis and laryngitis
  • Respiratory- Upper and lower airways- Cystic fibrosis, pseudomonas pneumonia
  • Mouth- dental caries

Antibiotic resistance challenges

As we enter a world where antibiotic resistance becomes more commonplace there are a few measures we can take to help alleviate this.

The 4 Rs of home antibiotic therapy:

  1. Right person- don’t share antibiotics
  2. Right route- by mouth, injection or topical
  3. Right time- and how often to take
  4. Right dose- don’t skip or save antibiotics, finish entire course of therapy

Research points to taking low doses of or not completing antibiotic therapy can cause antibiotic resistance- the pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria aren’t all the way eradicated. This, in turn allows the bacteria time to mutate and develop resistance to the antibiotic.

  • Use antibiotics appropriately

Antibiotics treat bacteria and, in some cases, parasitic and fungal infections. They do not treat viruses. Overuse and not used appropriately has led to antibiotic resistance. This in turn forces the practitioner to use stronger antibiotics with more side effects.

  • Biofilm disruptors

Combination drug therapies are sometimes used to combat biofilm.

There is a growing body of evidence that some spices and foods can act as biofilm disruptors, allowing antibiotics to reach the pathogenic bacteria. One is turmeric. Others include oil of oregano and cranberry, used in urinary tract infections.

Lifesaving Medications

Everyone should be empowered to care for themselves and their loved ones during the unexpected.

Recent Posts

Keeping you informed and safe.

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

In part 1 we reviewed how antibiotics work, part 2 what biofilms are and their role in antibiotic resistance. In part 3 we will review: When antibiotics are needed and when they aren’t appropriate Distinguish between an allergic reaction to an antibiotic and the...

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

In part 1 the history of antibiotics and how they work was reviewed. This week we will look at The role of biofilms in bacteria and why these present a challenge to our modern-day arsenal of antibiotics Antibiotic resistance challenges The role of biofilms in bacteria...

How do Antibiotics Work?

How do Antibiotics Work?

Part 1A brief history of antibiotics- or what do bread mold, arsenic, and soil all have in common? Throughout history populations used plants, soils and foods to treat infections. Many of our modern-day antibiotics originated from these. Only recently- the past 100...

How do Antibiotics Work?

Part 1

A brief history of antibiotics- or what do bread mold, arsenic, and soil all have in common?

Throughout history populations used plants, soils and foods to treat infections. Many of our modern-day antibiotics originated from these. Only recently- the past 100 years or so has the active compounds been isolated and purified for commercial use, saving millions of lives globally. We know antibiotics work, but how do they do their job? 

 In this 4-part series we will explore:

Part 1

  • A brief history of antibiotics
  • How antibiotics work- what mechanisms are at play when we take them

Part 2

  • The role of biofilms in bacteria and why these present a challenge to our modern-day arsenal of antibiotics
  • Antibiotic resistance challenges

Part 3

  • When antibiotics are needed and when they aren’t appropriate
  • Distinguish between an allergic reaction to an antibiotic and the symptoms the infection is treating

Part 4

  • A review of each of the antibiotics found in the Jase Case and their use.

A brief history of antibiotics

  • As far back as 350 A.D., tetracycline, a widely used antibiotic were found in bone fragments in ancient Sudanese Nubia. It is believed that stored contaminated grains back then helped cultivate a strain of tetracycline from Streptomycetes. By the late 40s tetracycline was purified and marketed commercially. This antibiotic covers a wide variety of infections, from acne to certain types of pneumonia, and some infections spread by mice and ticks.
  • In ancient Egypt, China, Serbia, Greece and Rome moldy bread was used topically to treat infections. This was documented by John Parkison in his book “Theatrum Botanicum” which was published in 1640.
  • Heavy metals, such as arsenic, bismuth and mercury were used to treat syphilis and gonorrhea with some success.  Salvarsan, an arsenic based chemical was discovered in 1909 by Paul Ehrlich. who is considered the father of microbial therapy. 
  • In 1928 Alexander Fleming discovered mold growing on a petri dish that had staphylococcus bacteria in it. The mold prohibited the growth of the staph. He described the mold as a type of self-defense chemical that killed bacteria. He named it penicillin. It wasn’t until 1940 that penicillin was first used- to treat streptococcal meningitis. 
  • Early 1930s- sulfa based drugs were discovered and produced by the Massengill Company in pill and tablet form. However, the company decided to mass produce an elixir without animal testing made from diethylene glycol (known today as antifreeze) which resulted in what was called the Sulfanilamide Disaster of 1937. More than 100 people died after ingesting this poison. This led to the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act in 1938 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of India, where controls are now in place on the manufacture and sale of drugs. 
  • In the mid-1950s synthetic antibiotics were introduced (such as quinolones)

How antibiotics work- what mechanisms are at play when we take them

Before we dive into how antibiotics work it must be stated that they do not work on viruses such as colds, flu, covid, viral pneumonia, RSV, measles, etc. Sometimes there is confusion when an antibiotic is given when the patient has a virus. The virus can lower the bodys immune defenses, in turn making it susceptible to opportunistic bacteria. At that point an antibiotic may be indicated. 

Many antibiotics work by attacking the cell wall of bacteria. Specifically, the drugs prevent the bacteria from synthesizing a molecule in the cell wall called peptidoglycan, which provides the wall with the strength it needs to survive in the human body,

Examples are penicillin, Ceftin,vancomycin

Protein synthesis is a multistep process where DNA is first transcribed into a molecule of single-stranded messenger RNA (mRNA). Then, ribosomes translate it with the help of transfer RNA (tRNA) into long strings of amino acids, which become proteins. Protein synthesis inhibitors prevent proteins from being made by acting as inhibitors of translation or transcription. By blocking either of these processes, many types of antibiotics kill or impair the growth of bacteria by preventing them from making proteins.

Examples: tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin

Antimicrobial drugs that can target the microbial cell membrane to alter its functionality. Membrane lysis, or rupture, is a cell death pathway in bacteria frequently caused by cell wall-targeting antibiotics.

Examples are polymyxin and gramicidin

  • Antibiotics that interfere with the development of DNA or break DNA strands through enzyme inhibitors 

Examples: rifamycins and fluoroquinolones, metronidazole

Antimetabolites are medications that interfere with the synthesis of DNA. Some antimetabolites are used in chemotherapy to kill cancer cells, while others are used as antibiotics since they inhibit bacterial folate synthesis

Examples: levofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin

Lifesaving Medications

Everyone should be empowered to care for themselves and their loved ones during the unexpected.

Recent Posts

Keeping you informed and safe.

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

In part 1 we reviewed how antibiotics work, part 2 what biofilms are and their role in antibiotic resistance. In part 3 we will review: When antibiotics are needed and when they aren’t appropriate Distinguish between an allergic reaction to an antibiotic and the...

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

In part 1 the history of antibiotics and how they work was reviewed. This week we will look at The role of biofilms in bacteria and why these present a challenge to our modern-day arsenal of antibiotics Antibiotic resistance challenges The role of biofilms in bacteria...

How do Antibiotics Work?

How do Antibiotics Work?

Part 1A brief history of antibiotics- or what do bread mold, arsenic, and soil all have in common? Throughout history populations used plants, soils and foods to treat infections. Many of our modern-day antibiotics originated from these. Only recently- the past 100...

Practice Gratitude – Improve Health

“I awoke this morning with devout thanksgiving for my friends, the old and the new.”

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Gratitude- The state of being grateful. Thankfulness Thanksgiving. Embracing and being grateful for what we have (the gift) and for the source (the giver) of it. The gift can come from another, a higher power or nature. 

The world is in upheaval. There are challenges facing all of us as we bid 2022 goodbye and welcome 2023 with a little trepidation. We are entering uncharted territory in world history. The good news is that we are not alone. How we enter this new year depends a lot on our attitude and ability to remain flexible to our changing landscape. In other words, our attitude can make or break us. Let’s take the higher road and focus on solutions.

Robert Emmons, professor of psychology at the University of California, Davis, is one of the world’s leading experts on the science of gratitude, conducted a series of tests to determine if acknowledging and expressing gratitude had any lasting health effects. After conducting several studies ranging from weekly to daily gratitude journaling, he concluded that daily expressions of gratitude had lasting positive outcomes physically, emotionally, and mentally. In other words, daily expressions of gratitude set the stage for continued habits of positive emotions and resilience. 

Practicing gratitude, either in written or spoken form activates the parasympathetic nervous system, which is known as the calming part of the nervous system. This in turn lowers cortisol levels and promotes feelings of wellbeing. 

Health benefits of practicing gratitude

  • Reduces stress- Stress hormones such as cortisol 23% lower
  • Lowers inflammation with reduced stress comes reduced inflammation
  • Improved heart health- lower blood pressure
  • Alleviates anxiety
  • Promotes social wellness
  • More likely to choose healthy habits such as diet and exercise
  • Better sleep quality
  • Higher sense of self worth
  • Improved immune function

Is gratefulness a personality trait or can it be learned?

While there are certain personalities that are naturally geared to be more grateful, gratitude can be developed into lifelong habits. Dr. Emmons believes you can cultivate gratitude. In this excellent video, he explains how to become more grateful.  (He has a whole series on gratitude on You Tube worth watching)  

How to practice gratitude

Practicing gratitude not only elevates another person but also elevates you. Dr Emmons work revealed daily and consistent focus on gratitude and being thankful had lasting benefits

The following are a few tips to get started:

    • Journal- Keep a daily journal of 5 things you are grateful for, commit to doing this daily for one month
  • Write letters to loved ones and those you appreciate. Let them know how you feel. It always feels good to get something in the mail that isn’t an advertisement or bill! This could be in combination with other forms of gratitude.
  • Tell 5 people something about them you are grateful for 
  • Text 5 people something positive. Let them know you are thinking about them
  • Start a couple’s journal. Leave it out on coffee table. Write something positive in it daily to each other. 
  • Take time out each day to meditate or pray. Focus on what is good in your life, and work towards solutions to challenges in your life.

Gratitude Quotes- to inspire you!

  1. “This is a wonderful day. I have never seen this one before.” Maya Angelou
  2. “When we focus on our gratitude, the tide of disappointment goes out and the tide of love rushes in.” Kristin Armstrong
  3. “When eating fruit, remember the one who planted the tree.” Vietnamese proverb
  4. “When I started counting my blessings, my whole life turned around.” Willie Nelson
  5. “Enjoy the little things, for one day you may look back and realize they were the big things.” Roert Brault
  6. “‘Enough’ is a feast.” Buddhist Proverb
  7. “He is a wise man who does not grieve for the things which he has not, but rejoices for those which he has.” Epictetus
  8. “Piglet noticed that even though he had a Very Small Heart, it could hold a rather large amount of Gratitude.” A.A. Milne
  9. “We must find time to stop and thank the people who make a difference in our lives.” John F. Kennedy
  10. “Gratitude is the ability to experience life as a gift. It liberates us from the prison of self-preoccupation.” John Ortberg
  11. “O Lord that lends me life, lend me a heart replete with thankfulness.” William Shakespeare
  12. “We can only be said to be alive in those moments when our hearts are conscious of our treasures.” Thornton Wilder

 

 

Lifesaving Medications

Everyone should be empowered to care for themselves and their loved ones during the unexpected.

Recent Posts

Keeping you informed and safe.

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

In part 1 we reviewed how antibiotics work, part 2 what biofilms are and their role in antibiotic resistance. In part 3 we will review: When antibiotics are needed and when they aren’t appropriate Distinguish between an allergic reaction to an antibiotic and the...

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

In part 1 the history of antibiotics and how they work was reviewed. This week we will look at The role of biofilms in bacteria and why these present a challenge to our modern-day arsenal of antibiotics Antibiotic resistance challenges The role of biofilms in bacteria...

How do Antibiotics Work?

How do Antibiotics Work?

Part 1A brief history of antibiotics- or what do bread mold, arsenic, and soil all have in common? Throughout history populations used plants, soils and foods to treat infections. Many of our modern-day antibiotics originated from these. Only recently- the past 100...

A Dementia Diagnosis Can Be Challenging

Rule out other causes of decline first

Dementia is a general term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving and other thinking abilities that are severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer’s is the most common type of dementia. It takes a toll on families and especially caregivers. Holidays and get togethers can be challenging for both families and the patient.

Some symptoms of early onset of dementia are:

  • Confusion
  • Loss of coordination-tripping, unable to hold items
  • Memory loss especially short term
  • Inability to reason complex situations
  • Emotional lability- anger, sadness, depression.

As dementia progresses symptoms become more pronounced, and leads to physical inability to take care of self independently

Risk factors for dementia

  • Genetics
  • Age- older adults are more at risk for a dementia diagnosis
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Smoking
  • Social isolation

Types of dementia

Alzheimer’s dementia

  • Twice as many women as men are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s dementia
  • Most are over 65 years.

Alzheimer’s disease leads to nerve cell death and tissue loss throughout the brain. Over time, the brain shrinks dramatically, affecting nearly all its functions.

Symptoms are mild to start and progress over time. Early symptoms are forgetfulness- of names or items such as keys are, unable to recall family or friends names along with forgetting special dates or appointments

As disease progresses changes in mood, depth perception and inability to organize thoughts and cognition are apparent. In later stages of Alzheimer’s the person experiences hallucinations, delusions and is physically incapable of performing basic hygiene.

Frontotemporal

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), also called Picks disease is one of the less common types of dementia. It covers a range of different conditions that can affect personality, behavior, and language. FTD is mostly diagnosed in people under 65. Average onset is between 40 and 60 years, however it can occur as early as 20 years old.

Dementia with Lewy bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is caused by Lewy body disease. In this disease, tiny

clumps of proteins – known as Lewy bodies – appear in the nerve cells of the brain, and progresses to decline in reasoning, independent function. and cognition. It can be hard to diagnose because it presents similar to many psychiatric symptoms

Vascular Dementia

 This type of dementia- which is sometimes called “Post Stroke Dementia” is different from Alzheimer’s or Lewy Body Dementia. Vascular Dementia is brain damage caused by bleeding or harm in the brain-such as a stroke. Symptoms that identify Vascular Dementia are observed immediately following a stroke and can include:

  • Changes in personality,
  • Depending on the area of the brain that has been affected- thinking short attention span
  • Difficulty reasoning organizing and analyzing thoughts

Correct diagnosis of dementia can be challenging

Many medical conditions, physical and emotional factors, along with medications can mimic dementia.

Medical conditions that can present as dementia like symptoms:

  • Liver and kidney disease– accumulation of toxic metabolic waste products in the blood can cause confusion and inability to form cohesive thoughts.
  • Infections– notably urinary tract infections can cause confusion and personality changes.This is more common in older population, symptoms of urinary tract infection sometimes present with different symptoms than younger population. Other infections should also be ruled out, such as syphilis or Lyme disease.
  • Cancer-especially brain cancer- by tumor pressing on the brain- or an immune response in which antibodies against the brain are formed, producing a “paraneoplastic syndrome”.
  • Endocrine dysregulation– such as thyroid gland (hypo or hyperthyroid) or diabetes- both of these conditions can alter mood, ability to coordinate and concentrate.
  • Head trauma– concussion
  • Depression– which can alter and slow thought processes and cause inability to make decisions along with irritability and mood changes.

Physical conditions that can present as dementia like symptoms

  • Poor vision– resulting in tripping, falling and bumping into furniture, walls, stairs, etc
  • Hearing lossA Lancet Commission report on hearing loss showed a link between hearing loss and cognitive decline, leading to a diagnosis of dementia.
  • Lack of sleep– inability to concentrate or pay attention can mimic dementia, however research points to altered sleep patterns , even one nights sleep disruption has been shown to increase the beta amyloid plaque – the protein that causes dementia in the brain.

Medications that can mimic dementia

Some medications can take a long time before symptoms set in, so if you notice any cognitive changes even without a change in medication- either over the counter or prescription review with your care provider your concerns.

  • Anticholinergic medications-such as tolterodine or oxybutynin, often used to treat urinary incontinence, Benadryl used for allergies and for sleep,
  • Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline for example
  • Antipsychotics such as Seroquil
  • Benzodiazepines such as Valium, Xanax, and Librium
  • Sleep aids such as Sonata and Ambien
  • Corticosteroids such as Prednisone
  • Narcotic pain relievers- such as morphine
  • Anti-Parkinson drugs such as trihexyphenidyl (Artrane)

It is important to make sure all other causes of confusion, memory loss, poor coordination, mood changes and other dementia mimicking signs have been considered before a diagnosis of dementia is made. Many medical conditions, physical conditions and drugs mimic the symptoms of dementia, take the time to review them and discuss with your care provider.

If a definite diagnosis of dementia has been made there are many resources available. One is the Alzheimers.org online support group and help with finding local resources to help with caring for your loved one.

Lifesaving Medications

Everyone should be empowered to care for themselves and their loved ones during the unexpected.

Recent Posts

Keeping you informed and safe.

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 3

In part 1 we reviewed how antibiotics work, part 2 what biofilms are and their role in antibiotic resistance. In part 3 we will review: When antibiotics are needed and when they aren’t appropriate Distinguish between an allergic reaction to an antibiotic and the...

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

How do Antibiotics Work? Part 2

In part 1 the history of antibiotics and how they work was reviewed. This week we will look at The role of biofilms in bacteria and why these present a challenge to our modern-day arsenal of antibiotics Antibiotic resistance challenges The role of biofilms in bacteria...

How do Antibiotics Work?

How do Antibiotics Work?

Part 1A brief history of antibiotics- or what do bread mold, arsenic, and soil all have in common? Throughout history populations used plants, soils and foods to treat infections. Many of our modern-day antibiotics originated from these. Only recently- the past 100...